Learn The Participle and Types comprehensively by definition, examples, uses, and exercises with answers. Get the concepts and learn effectively.
Definitions of Participle
Here are multiple definitions of participle for better understanding:
1: A participle refers to the form of the verb that is partly a verb and partly an adjective.
2: A participle is also known to be a double part of speech a verb and an Adjective combined.
3: A participle does the work of a verb as well as an adjective.
Types and Formulas
Firstly, take a look at the types of the participle with formulas.
(A) Present participle= FIRST form of the verb+ ing
(B) Past participle= Third form of the verb
(C) Perfect participle= Having+ Third form of the verb
USE OF PARTICIPLE
We can use participle in the following ways:
(A): PRESENT PARTICIPLE: (Verb+ ing)
1. A Participle qualifies a noun.
I. A bubbling spring is very beautiful to look at.
ii. Never try to get into the running train.
iii. A rolling stone gathers no mass.
iv. Hearing the noise, the baby woke up.
If the present participle is made from a transitive verb, it takes an object.
I. I met a student carrying a bag of books.
ii. There came a man carrying a basket of apples.
iii. We met a girl carrying a bunch of flowers.
In the above examples; carry is a transitive verb therefore an object is necessary after it.
3: It is used to denote the second activity after the completion of the first.
I. washing his hands, he ate the fruit.
ii. Finishing the work, we went out for a walk.
iii. Writing an essay, he went to buy fruit.
4. It is used in the continuous tense.
I. I am playing tennis.
ii. We were learning our lessons.
iii. He will be coming home soon.
5: It May Govern a Pronoun
I. Hearinghim speaking, I was pleased.
ii. Seeing him fall from the tree, I rushed to help him.
6: IT MAY BE MODIFIED BY AN ADVERB.
I. Loudly knocking at the gate, he asked permission.
ii. Frankly speaking, it was not my intention to harm you.
Here knocking is affected by adverb loudly and speaking is affected by adverb frankly
7: It may be modified by an adverb of degree such as;
Very, too, quite, rather etc.
I. It was a very charming sight.
ii. He is rather hardworking.
8: It may be used attributively.
I. The thundering clouds frightened the child.
ii. The roaring lion escaped the cage.
9: It may be used predicatively.
I. He kept me waiting.
ii. The teacher kept him standing.
10: Absolutely with a noun
OR pronoun going before it.
I. The weather being fine, we went out to work.
ii. God willing, we will certainly succeed.
B: PAST PARTICIPLE —– (verb +d, ed, t, n,en)
The third form of the verb is called a past participle.
Work- worked, close- closed, drive-driven.
1. It presents a completed action.
i. The tired student began to rest.
ii. The trees were laden with fruit.
iii. Blinded by dust-storm, we lost our way.
iv. The frightened child began to cry.
IN the above sentences tired, laden, blinded, and frightened are representing the completion of the work.
2. It qualifies a noun that is placed after it.
I. She had a wearied look.
ii. Brokenmarble can injure your feet.
iii. The injured men were crying for water.
3. It functions as an adjective which is the complement of the verb.
I. The students were tired.
ii. The Shops were closed.
iii. The girls were discouraged.
4: It functions as an object complement.
I. I saw the passenger injured.
ii. I have heard the song sung.
iii. The news left us dazed.
The above sentences can also be written in complete passive voice representation such as;
I. The passenger was injured.
ii. The song was sung.
iii. We were dazed.
5: It functions like an adverb modifying the verb.
I. She walked out offended.
ii. He left the hospital completely cured.
iii. Afaq returned home greatly upset.
6: It helps to form an adjective phrase qualifying the noun placed before it.
I. The oranges plucked yesterday are still unripe.
ii. The goods stolen from the market have been recovered.
iii. People injured in the accident were shifted to the hospital.
In the above examples, the underlined words are adjective phrase that is explaining the noun placed before them.
(C): PERFECT PARTICIPLE (Having+ past participle)
1. It is a verbal adjective form of a verb converted into the third form of the verb.
Having is used before it.
i. Having worked hard, he went to sleep.
ii. Having loaded the cart, the farmer went home.
iii. The sun having set, we came home.
All the above sentences are representing the completion of work in the past at a fixed time.
2: Perfect Participle may be the combination of present participle and past participle. It may be in the active voice or passive voice.
i. Having read the book we went to school. (Active voice)
ii. Having been warned by me, he became serious. (Passive voice)
iii. Having learned the lesson, we began to play. (Active voice)
iv. HAVING BEEN notified by the principal, the student appeared before the committee. (Passive voice)
1. Present Participle with the continuous tense of the verb “Be”.
i. I am taking exercise.
ii. I was taking exercise.
iii. I shall be taking exercise.
2: Past Participle with perfect tenses of the verb “HAVE”.
i. I have worked.
ii. I had worked.
iii. I shall have worked.
3. Past Participle in passive voice with the tense of the verb “Be”.
i. I am beaten.
ii. I was beaten.
iii. I shall be beaten.
Let us do an exercise:
Complete the following sentences with a suitable participle.
And tell whether it is present participle or past participle.
1: Reaching home, I greeted my mother. (PRESENT)
2: Turning to the right, he saw Ahmad standing beside him. (PRESENT)
3: Having gained the truth, keep the truth. (PRESENT)
4: Getting tired, he went to sleep. (PRESENT)
5: She had a surprised look. (PAST)
6: He looks pleased. (PAST)
7: Ali is a guest departed. (PAST)
8: I saw my mother coming in. (PRESENT)
9: Playing hockey, we went to school. (PRESENT)
10: We saw a man shooting. (PRESENT)
Let us discuss another exercise:
Complete the following sentences with a suitable participle.
1.___________ the cat, the rats dispersed.
2. I kept him ______________.
3. We saw the thief __________.
4. We watched them_______ in the garden.
5. _______ the noise, I woke up.
6. I saw him_________ his pen.
7. The house was _________ by the flood.
8. We saw the shop _________ to ashes.
9. We found him ________ mentally.
10. The trees are ________ with fruit.
1. Seeing, 2.Waiting, 3. Escaping, 4.Playing, 5. HEARING,
6. Stealing, 7. Destroyed, 8. Burnt, 9. Disturbed, 10. Laden.