The formula for narration change is to convert direct speech to indirect speech. Direct speech is when the speaker’s words are quoted exactly, while indirect speech is when the speaker’s words are reported without the use of quotation marks.
Here is a general formula for changing narration:
Reporting verb + that + (subject of direct speech) + (verb in past tense) + (rest of the sentence)
Direct speech: “I love cats,” said the little pretty girl.
Indirect speech: The pretty little girl said that she loved cats.
Here are some additional rules for changing narration:
- Change the tense of the verb in the direct speech to past tense.
- Change the first person pronouns “I” and “we” to third person pronouns “he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” and “we” (depending on the subject of the reporting verb).
- Change the second person pronouns “you” and “your” to third person pronouns “him,” “her,” “its,” “them,” and “their” (depending on the object of the reporting verb).
- Change the demonstrative pronouns “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those” to agree with the number and person of the demonstrative pronouns in the indirect speech.
- Change the adverbs of time and place to agree with the time and place of the indirect speech.
Here are some examples of more complex narration changes:
Direct speech: “I’m going to the utility store,” said my mother. “Can you come with me?”
Indirect speech: My mother said that she was going to the utility store and asked if I could come with her.
Direct speech: “What are you doing tomorrow?” he asked.
Indirect speech: He asked me what I was doing the next day.
Direct speech: “I’ve never seen this horror movie before,” she said.
Indirect speech: She said that she had never seen that horror movie before.
Direct speech: “I will be in London in five month,” he said.
Indirect speech: He said that he would be in London in five months.