Definition of Complex Sentences
A complex sentence is a sentence that consists of one independent clause (a complete sentence that can stand alone) and at least one dependent clause (a sentence fragment that cannot stand alone).
The dependent clause is usually introduced by a subordinating conjunction (such as “although,” “because,” or “when”) or a relative pronoun (such as “who,” “that,” or “which”).
In a complex sentence, the dependent clause provides additional information or clarification to the independent clause.
The two clauses are closely related and work together to convey a complete thought or idea. Complex sentences are commonly used in academic writing, journalism, and other forms of professional communication.
Also Read: Compound Sentences
Complex Sentence Structure
The structure of a complex sentence typically includes one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
The independent clause is a complete sentence that can stand on its own, while the dependent clauses are sentence fragments that rely on the independent clause for context and meaning.
Dependent clauses usually begin with a subordinating conjunction, such as “although,” “because,” “when,” “if,” or “since,” among others. These conjunctions help to establish a relationship between the dependent clause and the independent clause.
Here is an example of the structure of a complex sentence:
Independent clause: I went to the store.
Dependent clause: Because I needed to buy some groceries.
Combined sentence: I went to the store because I needed to buy some groceries.
In this example, the independent clause is “I went to the store,” and the dependent clause is “because I needed to buy some groceries.”
The subordinating conjunction “because” connects the dependent clause to the independent clause, creating a complex sentence.
Complex sentences allow writers to convey complex ideas and relationships between ideas. By combining clauses in this way, writers can create more detailed and nuanced sentences that add depth and complexity to their writing.
Complex Sentence Examples
Here are some examples of complex sentences:
- Although I studied hard, I still failed the exam.
- The book, which was recommended by my teacher, turned out to be very informative.
- She went to the store because she needed to buy some groceries.
- John, who is my best friend, is going to visit me next week.
- After I finish my homework, I am going to watch a movie.
- Although it was raining heavily, the football game continued.
- The company decided to hire a new CEO, who had extensive experience in the industry.
- Because he had saved enough money, he was able to buy a new car.
- After I finish this project, I’m going to take a long vacation.
- Even though I’m not a big fan of horror movies, I agreed to watch one with my friends.
- She didn’t get the job, which was a disappointment, but she was determined to keep trying.
- Since it was a beautiful day, we decided to go for a hike in the mountains.
- Although he had never played the piano before, he quickly learned how to play a few songs.
- The teacher explained the concept several times, until the students finally understood it.
- After the storm had passed, we went outside to assess the damage.
In each of these examples, there is one independent clause and one dependent clause.
Complex Sentences Conjunctions
Conjunctions are an essential part of creating complex sentences, as they are used to connect the independent and dependent clauses. Here are some common conjunctions that are used to create complex sentences:
- Even though
- Provided that
- In order that
- So that
Using these conjunctions, it is possible to create complex sentences that convey a wide range of ideas and information.
By connecting the independent and dependent clauses, these conjunctions help to make the sentence more detailed, nuanced, and complex.