Synthesis of Sentences of All types. Learn it with definitions, examples, and solved exercises. The whole article is concept-based.
Synthesis Meanings | Synthesis of All types of Sentences
Rules of Synthesis of All Types of Sentences
What is Synthesis?
Synthesis means to arrange, refine or purify. In this concept, two or more sentences are combined to make one sentence containing a complete sense of that two sentences. As a result, smoothness comes in the resultant sentence and it becomes more worthy.
1. Participles (Synthesis of Sentences)
When two sentences are combined in such a way that the subject does the second action after performing the first one.
Rules of Participle
Formula:1st form of the Verb+ing
So, to synthesize the sentences,
(i) Skipp the subject of the first sentence.
(ii) Convert that verb into 1st form of the verb with “ing” (1V+ing).
(iii) Place (1V+ing) at the start of the sentence. (iv)Place a comma after (1V+ing).
(v) After a comma, write the next sentence as a whole.
(vi) After a comma, the first letter of the second sentence must be small other than I.
(vii) Remember, if the first sentence contains is, are, am, was, or were then start the sentence with being then write the verb as it is.
(viii) Combine the sentences according to the sequence of the actions performed.
They pulled down a tree. They blocked the road.
Pulling down a tree, they blocked the road.
I worked hard. I sat down for rest.
Working hard, I sat down for rest.
He was fatigued. He laid his work aside.
Being fatigued, he laid his work aside.
He hurt his foot. He stopped.
Hurting his foot, he stopped.
He was unwilling to violence. He returned home.
Being unwilling of violence, he returned home.
We saw the uselessness. We changed our policy.
Seeing the uselessness, we changed our policy.
I received no answer. I knocked several times.
Receiving no answer, I knocked several times.
He was not contented with his salary. He gave up his post.
Being not contented with his salary, he gave up his post.
He laid his work aside. He felt tired.
Feeling tired, he laid his work aside.
In the above sentence, according to the sequence of activities performed, anyone firstly a man gets tired then laid work aside. So, the second sentence will come first.
He saw Waseem on the path. He went straight.
Seeing Waseem on the path, he went straight.
The dog stole a piece of meat. He ran to the fields.
Stealing a piece of meat, the dog ran to the fields.
The above sentence is about a dog and in the first sentence we skip the subject of the first sentence according to the rule and we use the dog as a subject of the second part.
2. Infinitive (Synthesis of Sentences)
Formula: To+1st form of the Verb
In the concept of the infinitive, there may be at least two sentences in which one sentence expresses the purpose of the situation of the first sentence. So, add ‘to’ before the verb of that sentence which expresses the purpose. Remember that the form of the verb must be 1st after ‘to’.
Usman went to Lahore. He wanted to see my friends.
Usman went to Lahore to see my friends.
Fatima has some duties. She must perform them.
Fatima has some duties to perform.
Ali and Hassan had no money. They could not get admission to a college.
Ali and Hassan had no money to get admission to a college.
You must focus on the sequence of the action performed. It does not mean the first sentence will come first while undergoing infinitive.
My father will hear of my failure. He will be shocked.
My father will be shocked to hear of my failure.
If there is an adjective in one of the two sentences whereas in the second sentence there is a negative thing then add ‘too’ before the adjective whereas add ‘to’ before the main verb and put the main verb in the first form.
Ali did not invest all his savings. He was wise.
Ali was too wise to invest all his savings.
In the above sentences, ‘wise’ is an adjective whereas ‘invest’ is the main verb and is already in first from.
3. Adverb Or Adverbial Phrase (Synthesis of Sentences)
(i) If we convert one of the two sentences into ‘adverb‘ means if we add ‘ly’ at the end of an adjective then the word will become an adverb. So, combining the sentences by using adverb (making from adjective) is known as an adverbial phrase.
(ii) Add a comma after adverb if adverb comes at the start of the sentence.
(iii) Do not consider/write the remaining sentence that contains an adjective.
He passed the examination. That was lucky.
Luckily, he passed the examination.
He answered me. His answer was incorrect.
He answered me incorrectly.
Some adverbs come at the start of the sentence for the adverbial phrases.
Fortunately, Unfortunately, Generally, Certainly, uncertainty, luckily, unluckily.
He won the quiz competition. It was fortunate for him.
Fortunately, he won the quiz.
Some Other Adverbs other than ‘ly’
When we combine two sentences, the second sentence will come without a verb but give complete meanings as same as it will give the meanings in the presence of a verb. For this purpose, we use a preposition according to the second sentence.
You solved the problem. Its solution took to you no time.
You solved the problem in no time.
The sunset. The boys had not returned home.
The boys had not returned home by sunset.
4. Noun, Phrase in Apposition (Synthesis of Sentences)
If one of the two sentences uses its subject or object as a verb, called the use of the noun. In such sentences, we use only the noun of any of the sentences and attach to the remaining sentence and the remaining part of the sentence will be removed.
He is my brother. His name is Abuzar.
He is my brother Abuzar.
If we combine two sentences with the help of explanatory words, this concept is called Phrase in Apposition or Defining Clause. In such sentences, skip the helping verb/verb of one sentence and the subject of the other sentence.
Mr. Hamza is my friend. He is very industrious.
Mr. Hamza, my friend, is very industrious. (by skipping H.V and Subject)
There goes, my brother. He is called Saeed.
There goes my brother, Saeed. (by skipping verb, helping verb, and Subject)
5. Preposition With Noun (Synthesis of Sentences)
If the verb of one of the two sentences is converted into a noun and further converted into a phrase by using a preposition, it is called a preposition with a noun.
The sun had set. Their journey had not ended.
The sun had set before the end of their journey.
The moon rose. We could not start our work.
The moon had arisen before the start of our work.
6. Absolute Phrase (Synthesis of Sentences)
The technique of absolute phrase, means, refining the sentences, add ‘having’ after the subject of the first sentence and write the third form of the verb after ‘having’, and then write the second sentence.
The teacher entered the class. The students set to reading.
The teacher having entered the class, the students set to reading.
The soldiers arrived. The mob dispersed.
The soldiers having arrived, the mob dispersed
If there are helping verbs like is, are, am, was, and were, then add ‘having been’ before the third form of the verb.
The rains are heavy. The floods are feared.
The rains having been heavy, the floods are feared.